The so far published final results of the censuses conducted (in 2002 and 2003) show that the earlier differences between the basic structures of the population of Serbia and Montenegro are still existent, as well as that the direction and intensity of changes have been fairly even from the early 1990s and the 1991 census.
At the beginning of the 21st century, the female population outnumbered the male one in the both member states, where also the demographic ageing went on. Moreover, these demographic phenomena are not of a recent origin in Serbia and Montenegro alike. They have been existent over the last few decades, but they intensified very much in the latest inter-censal period. The numeric imbalance between the male and female populations increased in the both member states in relation to that existing at the 1991 census. The population ageing was also speeded up considerably. Therefore, these two characteristics also apply to the S & M state union as a whole.
However, there is a difference between Serbia and Montenegro in the existing structure by age and sex, although the direction of changes is the same. In that respect, the difference between the age structure is particularly striking: Serbia is in the group of countries with the oldest populations in Europe and world in general, while according to the age structure of its population, Montenegro ranks among the demographically youngest European populations.
* Despite the conducted censuses in Serbia and Montenegro (in 2002 and 2003 respectively), the demographic picture of Serbia & Montenegro is still incomplete because of the non-existent most important data on the Province of Kosovo & Metohija, which has been under the United Nations administration since 1999 and where no population census has been conducted since 1981. Consequently, the data breakdown presented in this article is limited to the data relating to the population of Serbia & Montenegro, excluding Kosovo & Metohija.
Yet another limitation results from the fact that population censuses were not conducted simultaneously in the two member states, but with a 19-month time gap between them instead. That is a reason more why this article does not include data for the state union as a whole or the whole region consisting of Montenegro and Serbia without Kosovo & Metohija (total data for Serbia Proper and Vojvodina). Even so, because of a big disproportion between the number of inhabitants of Montenegro on the one side, and Serbia (Serbia Proper and Vojvodina) on the other (the ratio being 1:12), the assessments relating to Serbia largely apply also to these two regions as a whole.
 See the hitherto published results of the population censuses of Serbia (Yugoslav Survey, 2002, Nos. 2 and 4, and Survey S&M, 2003, Nos. 1 and 3, and 2004, No. 2) and Montenegro (Survey S&M, 2003, No. 4).
GORAN PENEV, M.Sc., Researcher Associate, Demographic Research Centre, Institute of Social Sciences, Belgrade
Reviewed by: Dr Biljana Radivojević, Professor, Belgrade Faculty of Economics
Translated by: Milutin Dovijanić